Creator: Written by Sergei Witte and Alexis Obolenski in early October 1905 and presented to Tsar Nicholas 11 of Russia on 17 October 1905.
Purpose: It was written as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Later, it became the precursor for the first ever Russian Constitution.
The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order
We require the government dutifully to execute our unshakeable will:
(1.) To grant to the population the essential foundations of civil freedom, based on the principles of genuine inviolability of the person, freedom of conscience, speech, assembly and association.
(2.) Without postponing the scheduled elections to the State Duma, to admit to participation in the duma (insofar as possible in the short time that remains before it is scheduled to convene) of all those classes of the population that now are completely deprived of voting rights; and to leave the further development of a general statute on elections to the future legislative order.
(3.) To establish as an unbreakable rule that no law shall take effect without confirmation by the State Duma and that the elected representatives of the people shall be guaranteed the opportunity to participate in the supervision of the legality of the actions of Our appointed officials.
We summon all loyal sons of Russia to remember their duties toward their country, to assist in terminating the unprecedented unrest now prevailing, and together with Us to make every effort to restore peace and tranquility to Our native land.